25 Apr


a. m. — Ante meridian (12 AM to 12 PM)
p. m. — Post meridian (12 PM to 12 AM)
B. A. — Bachelor of Arts
M. A. — Master of Arts
B. Sc. — Bachelor of Science
M. Sc. — Master of Science
B. Sc. Ag. — Bachelor of Science in Agriculture
M. Sc. Ag. — Master of Science in Agriculture
M. B. B. S. — Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
M. D. — Doctor of Medicine
M. S. — Master of Surgery
Ph. D. / D. Phil. — Doctor of Philosophy
D. Litt./Lit. — Doctor of Literature / Doctor of Letters
D. Sc. — Doctor of Science
B. Com. — Bachelor of Commerce
M. Com. — Master of Commerce
Dr. — Doctor
B. P. — Blood Pressure
Mr. — Mister
Mrs. — Mistress (मिसेंज) विवाहित महिला के लिए
MS. — (एम. एस.) विवाहित तथा अविवाहित दोनों प्रकार की महिलाओं के लिए
Miss — कुँआरी लड़की के लिये
Messrs — (मैसर्स) फर्मों के लिये
M. P. — Member of Parliament
M. L. A. — Member of Legislative Assembly
M. L. C. — Member of Legislative Council
P. M. — Prime Minister
C. M. — Chief Minister
C-in-C — Commander-in-chief
L. D. C. — Lower Division Clerk
U. D. C. — Upper Division Clerk
Lt. Gov. — Lieutenant Governor
D. M. — District Magistrate
V. I. P. — Very Important Person
I. T. O. — Income Tax Officer
C. I. D. — Criminal Investigation Department
C/o — Care of
S/o — Son of
C. B. I. — Central Bureau of Investigation
G. P. O. — General Post Office
H. Q. — Head Quarters
E & O. E. — Errors and Omissions Excepted
Kg. — Kilogram
Kw. — Kilowatts
Gm. — Gram
Km. — Kilometer
Ltd. — Limited
m. p.h. — Miles per hour
km. p. h. — kilometre per hour
P. T. O. — Please Turn Over
P. W. D. — Public Works Department
C. P. W. D. — Central Public Works Department
U. S. A. — United States of America
U. K. — United Kingdom (England)
U. P. — Uttar Pradesh
M. P. — Madhya Pradesh
H. P. — Himachal Pradesh
U. N. O. — United Nations Organization
W. H. O. — World Health Organization
B. B. C. — British Broadcasting Corporation
B. C. — Before Christ
A. C. — Air Conditioned
I. G. — Inspector General (of Police)
D. I. G. — Deputy Inspector General (of Police)
S. S. P. — Senior Superintendent of Police
D. S. P. — Deputy Superintendent of Police
S. D. M. — Sub-Divisional Magistrate
S. M. — Station Master
A. S. M. — Assistant Station Master
V. C. — Vice-Chancellor
A. G. — Accountant General
C. R. — Confidential Report
I. A. S. — Indian Administrative Service
I. P. S. — Indian Police Service
I. F. S. — Indian Foreign Service or Indian Forest Service
I. R. S. — Indian Revenue Service
P. C. S. — Provincial Civil Service
M. E. S. — Military Engineering Service

25 Apr

One-Word Substitution

One-Word Substitution
● The life history of a man written by himself. = Autobiography
● A person who believes that there is no God. = Atheist
● A medicine which counteracts the effects of poison. = Antidote
● A person who does something not professionally but for pleasure. = Amateur
● A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen. = Alien
● That does not bear the name of the writer. = Anonymous
● Government by a ruler who has unlimited power. = Autocracy
● A diplomatic representative of one country in another. = Ambassador
● A traveller in space. = Astronaut
● An assembly of listeners. = Audience
● To give up the throne. = Abdicate
● A medicine which prevents infection by killing germs. = Antiseptic
● The science of vegetable life. = Botany
● The science which treats of life. = Biology
● Government by the officials = Bureaucracy
● The life history of a man written by someone else. = Biography
● One who has narrow and prejudiced religious views. = Bigot
● Festival of the hundredth anniversary. = Centenary
● The man who can eat human flesh. = Cannibal
● Place for burials other than a churchyard. = Cemetery
● Place for cremating of dead bodies. = Crematorium
● A person who is free from national prejudices. = Cosmopolitan
● People working together in the same office or department. = Colleague
● Belonging to the same time. = Contemporary
● Substance designed to make the skin or hair more beautiful. = Cosmetics
● That can be believed. = Credible
● The state of being unmarried. = Celibacy
● He is an artist that draws comic pictures. = Caricaturist
● A government of the people by the people and for the people. = Democracy
● A battle or a match in which neither party wins. = Drawn
● Want of rain. = Drought
● A disease that spreads over a large area. = Epidemic
● Articles sent from one country to another. = Export
● Which is fit to be eaten. = Edible
● A selfish person who always thinks of himself. = Egoist
● Fit to be chosen. = Eligible
● A person who leaves his own country and goes to live in another. = Emigrant
● A speech delivered without previous preparation. = Extempore
● Words inscribed on the graves. = Epitaph
● One who believes in fate. = Fatalist
● Which may cause death. = Fatal
● A man residing in a country of which he is not a citizen. = Foreigner
● A medicine that kills germs. = Germicide
● A person who eats too much. = Glutton
● An office for which no salary is paid. = Honorary
● Killing of a human being specially by another. = Homocide
● That which cannot be read. = Illegible

12 Apr

Languages Facts In India- Bengali, Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati, etc.

Languages Facts In India- Do You Know
• Assamese : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Asom.
• Bengali : It is one of the leading Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Paschim Banga.
• Gujarati : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Gujarat.
• Hindi : The largest spoken Indo-Aryan language.
– It is the official language of the Government of India.
– Various dialects of Hindi are Khadboli, Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.
– In 6 States and UTs, Hindi is the official language.
• Kannada : It belongs to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Karnataka.
• Kashmiri : It is an Indo-Aryan language.
It is often mistaken as the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.
• Konkani : It is the official language of Goa and is spoken by thousands of Konkanis in aharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Malayalam : Belong to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Kerala.
• Manipuri : It is the official language of Manipur. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Marathi : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Maharashtra.
• Nepali : It is spoken in parts of UP, Bihar, Paschim Banga, Asom, etc. It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.
• Oriya : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Odisha.
• Punjabi : It is an Indo-Aryan language and is the official language of Punjab.
• Sanskrit : It is one of the earliest languages of the world.
– Early Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit and covers the period between 2000 and 500 BC.
• Sindhi : It is an Indo-Aryan language. It was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment.
• Tamil : It is the oldest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Tamil Nadu.
• Telegu : It is numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.
• Urdu : It is the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.
Modern Urdu developed due to the efforts of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898).
• Dogri : It is generally spoken in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu. It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit and Pahari Dogri languages.
– It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Maithili : It is chiefly spoken in the Maithilianchal region of Bihar. It is the second State language of Bihar.
– It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Santhali : It is chiefly spoken in the area of Chotanagpur Plateau in Jharkhand and Bihar. It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.
• Bodo : It is chiefly spoken in Asom and its adjoining North-East States.
It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003.

12 Apr

Statewise Symbols of India

Statewise Symbols of India
Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Blackbuck, Animal | Indian Roller, Bird | Margosa, Tree | Water lily, Flower
Symbols of Arunchal Pradesh
Gayal, Animal | Great Hornbill, Bird | Lady slipper orchid, Flower
Symbols of Assam
One Horned Rhinoceros, Animal | White-winged Wood Duck, Bird | Foxtail Orchids, Flower
Symbols of Bihar
Gaur, Animal | Indian Roller, Bird | Peepal, Tree | Kachnar, Flower
Symbols of Chattisgarh
Wild Buffalo, Animal | Hill Myna, Bird
Symbols of Goa
Gaur, Animal | Black-Crested Bulbul, Bird | Matti, Tree
Symbols of Gujarat
Asiatic Lion , Animal |Greater Flamingo , Bird
Symbols of Haryana
Blackbuck, Animal | Black Francolin , Bird | Peepal , Tree | Lotus, Flower
Symbols of Himachal Pradesh
Snow Leopard, Animal | Monal, Bird | Deodar, Tree | Rhododendron, Flower
Symbols of Jammu & Kashmir
Kashmir Stag, Animal | Black-necked Crane, Bird | Chinar, Tree | Lotus, Flower
Symbols of Jharkhand
Elephant, Animal | koel, Bird | Sal, Tree | Palash, Flower
Symbols of Karnataka
Elephant, Animal | Indian Roller, Bird |Sandal, Tree | Lotus, Flower
Symbols of Kerala
Elephant, Animal | Great Hornbill, Bird | Coconut, Tree | Kanikonna, Flower
Symbols of Madhya Pradesh
Swamp Deer, Animal
Symbols of Maharashtra
Giant Squirrel, Animal | Green Imperial Pigeon, Bird | Mango, Tree | Jarul, Flower
Symbols of Manipur
Sangai , Animal | Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant , Bird | Toon, Tree | Shiroy lily, Flower
Symbols of Meghalaya
Clouded Leopard , Animal | Hill Myna, Bird | Gamari, Tree | Lady Slipper Orchid, Flower
Symbols of Mizoram
Hillock Gibbon, Animal | Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant, Bird | Iron Wood, Tree | Red Vanada, Flower
Symbols of Nagaland
Gaur, Animal |Blyth’s Tragopan, Bird | Alder, Tree | Rhododendron, Flower
Symbols of Orissa
Sambar , Animal | Peacock, Bird | Banyan, Tree | Lotus, Flower
Symbols of punjab
Blackbuck, Animal |Northern Goshawk , Bird | Sheesham , Tree
Symbols of Rajasthan
Chinkara, Animal | Indian Bustard, Bird | Khejri, Tree | Rohira, Flower
Symbols of Sikkim
Red Panda, Animal | Blood Pheasant, Bird | Rhododendron, Tree | Nobile Orchid , Flower
Symbols of Tamil Nadu
Nilgiri Tahr, Animal | Emerald Dove, Bird | Palm, Tree | Glory lily, Flower
Symbols of Tripura
Phayre’s Langur, Animal | Green Imperial Pigeon , Bird
Symbols of Uttranchal
Musk Deer , Animal | Himalayan Monal , Bird | Burans, Tree | Brahm Kamal, Flower
Symbols of Uttar Pradesh
Swamp Deer , Animal | Sarus Crane, Bird | Ashok, Tree | Brahm Kamal, Flower
Symbols of West Bengal
Fishing cat, Animal | White-throated Kingfisher , Bird | Chatian, Tree | Shephali, Flower

12 Apr


1766 — Establishment of first Indian Postal system by Lord Clive in India.
1774 — Establishment of first G.P.O. in Kolkata by Warren Hastings.
1786 — Establishment of Madras G.P.O.
1793 — Establishment of G.P.O. at Mumbai
1854 — On October 1, 1854, Indian Post Office was recognised as of national importance and was brought under the authority of Director-General. Year 2004 was celebrated as a 150th year of the Indian Post Office. The establishment of the deptt. of Post Office is to be considered from this very year.
1863 — Railway Mail Service (R.M.S.) was started.
1873 — Sale of engraving envelopes was started
1876 — India started Parcel Postal Unit.
1877 — Started of V.P.P.
1879 — Post Card was started.
1880 — Money-order Service was started.
1911 — First airmail was sent from Allahabad to Naini.
1935 — Indian Postal Order was started.
1972 — Pincode was started.
1984 — Postal life insurance was started.
1985 — Post and telephone departments were separated.
1986 — Speed Post Service was started.
1990 — At Mumbai and Chennai, two automatic postal edition Centres were started.
1995 — Rural Postal Insurance was started.
1996 — Media Postal Service was started.
1997 — Business Postal Service was started.
1998 — Satellite Postal Service was started.
1999 — Data Dak and Express Dak Services were started.
2000 — Greeting Post Service was started.
2001 — Electronic fund transfer service was started.
3rd Jan. 2002 — Track and Tax Service based on internet was started.
5th Sep. 2003 — Bill mail Service was started.
30th Jan. 2004 — Beginning of E Postal Service.
10th Aug. 2004 — Logestice Post Service was started.

12 Apr

Some Important Biology Notes for SSC and Other Government Exams

Some Important Biology Points
1–A chemical change in DNA molecule is called mutation.
2–Glycogen acts as a shortterm food reserve in animals.
3–Estrogen is a female sex hormone.
4–The enzyme amylase aids in the digestion of starch.
5–ATP synthesis takes place in mitochondria.
6–60%- 65% (Men) & 50- 60% (women) of the body weight of a human is water
7–Adipose tissue in human being is present below dermis.
8–The tough transparent membrane that protects the eye ball is called cornea.
9–Energy is produced in human body by Carbohydrates.
10–Cell wall and vacuoles are present in a plant cell but are absent in an animal cell.
11–Sugar is the product of the dark reactions of photosynthesis.
12–Melvin Kelvin was awarded Nobel Prize for his work on Photosynthesis
13–Chlorophyll contains magnesium in granae.
14–The largest flower in the world is Refflessia and the smallest one is wolfessia.
15–Penicillin is obtained from penicillium Notatum.
16–Reserpine derived from the plant ‘serpentine’ is used to alleviate high blood pressure.
17–Plants, living in acidic soils, are called oxalophytes.
18–Bile is produced in liver and stored in gel bladder.
19–The smallest bone, lies stapes is found in the human ear.
20–Enzymes are basically proteins.
21–Mitochondria is called the ‘power house of the cell’
22–Pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland.
23–Seedless fruits are formed by parthenogenesis.
24–Simple plants that contain no chlorophyll are called fungi.
25–Spirogyra is commonly known as ‘pond silk’
26–The longest muscle in the human body is found in thigh.
27–In some leaves, the outermost layer of cells secrets continuous waxy layer, called cuticle.
28–In a leaf, the opening between two guard cells is stomata.
29–Gibberellins are responsible for cell elongation.
30–The chemical name of chlorophyll is magnesium Dihydro prophysin.

12 Apr

Company Name Origin/ Meaning – Adidas, Mercedes, Honda, Pepsi, Samsung, Sony, etc.

Company Name Origin/ Meaning
1. Mercedes – Name of the daughter of the founder.
2. Nokia – Name of city & River in Finland.
3. Pepsi – Named from the digestive enzyme pepsi .
4. Honda – From the name of its founder Soichiro Honda.
5. Sony – from the Latin word’sonus’ meaning sound .
6.Maggi – Food company named after its founder,Julius Maggi.
7. Suzuki – From the name of its founder, Michio Suzuki.
8. Samsung – Meaning’ three stars’in Korea.
9. Toyota – From the name of founder, Sakichi Toyoda.!
10. Yamaha – After Torakusu Yamaha, who founded the company.
11. Adidas – From the name of the founder Adolf (Adi) Dassler (das).

12 Apr

Inspirational Story Of APJ Abdul Kalam

Inspirational Story Of APJ Abdul Kalam.
There were about 70 scientists working on a very hectic project. All of them were really frustrated due to the pressure of work and the demands of their boss but everyone was loyal to him and did not think of quitting the job.
One day, one scientist came to his boss and told him – Sir, I have promised to my children that I will take them to the exhibition going on in our township. So I want to leave the office at 5 30 pm. His boss replied “OK, You’re permitted to leave the office early today”. The Scientist started working. He continued his work after lunch. As usual he got involved to such an extent that he looked at his watch when he felt he was close to completion. The time was 8.30 PM. Suddenly he remembered of the promise he had given to his children.
He looked for his boss, He was not there. Having told him in the morning itself, he closed everything and left for home.
Deep within himself, he was feeling guilty for having disappointed his children. He reached home. Children were not there. His wife alone was sitting in the hall and reading magazines.
The situation was explosive, any talk would boomerang on him. His wife asked him “Would you like to have coffee or shall I straight away serve dinner if you are hungry.
The man replied “If you would like to have coffee, I too will have but what about Children ??” .Wife replied “You don’t know?? , Your manager came here at 5.15 PM and has taken the children to the exhibition “.
What had really happened was …. The boss who granted him permission was observing him working seriously at 5.00 PM. He thought to himself, this person will not leave the work, but if he has promised his children they should enjoy the visit to exhibition. So he took the lead in taking them to exhibition The boss does not have to do it every time. But once it is done, loyalty is established.
That is why all the scientists at Thumba continued to work under their boss even though the stress was tremendous.
By the way, can you hazard a guess as to who the boss was ?
He was none other than Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam . .

12 Apr

India’s 10 Most Valuable Brands.

India’s 10 Most Valuable Brands.
10. Reliance Communications : Value US$ 1.9 billion
Industry : Telecom
9. Kotak Mahindra Bank : Value US$ 2 billion
Industry : Banking
8. Idea Cellular : Value US$ 2.3 billion
Industry : Telecom
7. Hero MotoCorp : Value US$ 2.9 billion
Industry : Automobiles
6. Asian Paints : Value US$ 3.8 billion
Industry : Paints
5. Bajaj Auto : Value US$ 4 billion
Industry : Automobiles
4. ICICI Bank : Value US$ 4.5 billion
Industry : Banking
3. State Bank of India : Value US$ 7.8 billion
Industry : Banking
2. Airtel : Value US$ 8.2 billion
Industry : Telecom
1. HDFC Bank : Value US$ 10 billion
Industry : Banking.

12 Apr

Best Books for SBI Clerk Exam 2016 -Phase 1 & 2 – Syllabus & Selection Procedure-

SBI has released the notification for huge number of vacancies as Junior Associates in Clerical Cadre in State Bank of India in various states. It is a great opportunity for all the candidates who are trying for government jobs. There are more than 10,000 vacancies in total. Read the notification here.

Preliminary Examination will be conducted tentatively in the month of May/June 2016. Click here to apply online. The last date to apply is April 25, 2015. Age limit is 28 years as on 1.4.2016 for General candidates. Age relaxation is allowed as per government norms.


The selection process will consist of on-line test (preliminary & main examinations), test of official and/or local language and subject to Government of India approval, interview.

Phase-I : Preliminary Examination: Preliminary Examination consisting of Objective Tests for 100 marks will be conducted online. This test would be of 1 hour duration consisting of 3 Sections as follows:

1. English Language 30 Ques; 30 marks
2. Numerical Ability 35 ques; 35 marks
3. Reasoning Ability 35 ques; 35 marks
Total 100 questions and 100 marks. Composite time of one hour.

Candidates have to qualify in each of the three tests by securing passing marks to be decided by the Bank. Adequate number of candidates in each category as decided by the Bank (approximately 20 times the numbers of vacancies subject to availability) will be shortlisted for the Main Examination.

Phase – II: Main Examination : The structure of main examination (online objective type) would be as follows :
1. General/Financial Awareness 50 questions, 50 marks, 35 minutes
2. General English 40 questions, 40 marks, 35 minutes
3. Quantitative Aptitude 50 questions, 50 marks, 45 minutes
4. Reasoning Ability: Computer Aptitude 50 questions, 60 marks, 45 minutes

Total 190 questions and 200 marks and 2 Hours 40 minutes.
Each test will have separate timing as mentioned above.

Best Books for SBI Clerk Exam 2016:

A) English Language:

1) General English by Lucent Publications: The best book for the practice and preparation of English section. All topics are explained in English and Hindi language to give you much better understanding of topics. Plus, it is an exhaustive book which has explained even small topics in detail.

B) General Intelligence and Reasoning:

1) Analytical Reasoning by MK Pandey (BSC Publication): As SBI exams involves tough level of reasoning, this is the best book that is available in the market to prepare high level reasoning. All topics are explained systematically and with complete explanation and examples.

C) Quantitative Aptitude, Data Analysis and Interpretation :

1) Fast Track Objective Arithmetic by Arihant: My personal favourite in Maths that covers all basics and shortcuts in a relative intuitive manner. Hundreds of questions are given at the end of each chapter for you to practice. In Maths section, all you need is speed and that will come with practice- lots of practice.

If this book is not available on Flipkart, buy it on Amazon:

2) The Accredited Guide to Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency: Some of the questions will be based on data interpretation., this is best book available in the market for Data Analysis and Interpretation.

D) General Awareness, Marketing & Computers:

1) Handbook on Computer Awareness: This Book is really useful for Recruitment Exams such as SBI clerk, IBPS PO exam, IBPS PO/RRB/Clerk, SSC, LIC AAO, Railways and entrance exams of MCA, MBA, BBA and similar courses.

If this book is not available, buy this book:

2) Guide to Banking General Awareness and Banking Aptitude Test: Great book for banking awareness section. It contains more than 1,000 questions for the preparation of Banking awareness section.

3) Marketing Aptitude / Computer Aptitude / General & Banking Awareness for RBI Exams: A Must have book that covers marketing aptitude, computer knowledge and banking awareness.

For general awareness or current affairs section, you should read newspaper daily or like our Facebook page to get current affairs daily or follow our monthly current affairs section on this website.

All the best.

For SBI Clerk 2016 interview, visit this link.